Reduction and removal of the harmful major greenhouse gases

The major part of today´s greenhouse gas sources are the fossil fuels: Coal, Oil and Natural gas. They are also major energy sources of heat and electricity which are necessary for to- day´s world and therefore of vital importance for keeping our modern societies running and developing. In order to replace and reduce these sources we need to be efficient energy users and also to use other sources such as wind power, biomass and direct conversion of solar energy to electricity. The task before us is monumental because we have to count on continued increase of the world´s population and continued higher average standard of living and consequently a higher demand on energy supply. We need to be efficient energy producers as well as efficient energy users.

An example of the need for extremely efficient energy users are drying operations and particularly those who are run by oil or gas and therefore emit CO2 and H2O (as water vapor) from these fossil fuels and also emit H2O from the wet goods to be dried. Examples of renewable material are the waste biomass from the forestry and agricultural sectors and from their industries. When these materials are wet and used for efficient energy production they need to be dried. Another example is household waste in city dumps emitting CH4 and N2O during its degradation when it rots. In all of the above examples there is a need for the replacement of the fossil fuels and/or for the displacement of the harmful greenhouse gases emitted from the use of fossil fuels by the use of renewable sources (efficient use of the natural cycles of matter).

The use of energy is mainly in the forms of heat and of electricity. The amount of energy required varies greatly from user to user, from time to time and from area to area around the world. Therefore a very flexible distribution system is also necessary. To build such systems requires a long time and much capital. Consequently it will be necessary to use currently available production and distribution systems as much as possible and to increase their capacities by the use of highly efficient techniques.

An important consideration is that we need to save our resources and not deplete our “larger” of fossil fuels which has been saved during millions of years (for us?) and now is rapidly going to be emptied – at least that part that is on its near and easily accessible “shelves”. Another important fact to earnestly consider is the pollution of the atmosphere and the waters. Large quantities of particulate matter are emitted into the atmosphere and enormous quantities of waste material are dumped in the seas and are discharged into the seas through the polluted rivers of the world. The seas and the oceans are often the final dump for our waste. The oceans are already at a growing degree holding the rapidly increasing amounts of poison and impurities which have nowhere else to go. The surfaces of the open waters continuously evaporate H2O. Together with the emissions from human activities the clouds carry aerosols (dust, smoke, nano particles etc.) with various impurities around the globe and dump them by the rain falls over land and waters.

It is vitally important to design solutions that can with highest efficiency in energy production and use and at best economy reduce and remove the major greenhouse gases. To remove and reduce the H2O emissions thereby need to be of the first priority.